ACCOUNTING TERMS - ACCOUNTING DICTIONARY - ACCOUNTING GLOSSARY
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MATERIALS are physical goods (and their cost) used in the manufacture of a product, often separated into DIRECT MATERIAL (that which goes directly into the product such as cream into ice cream, or steel into cars) and INDIRECT MATERIAL (that which is used in maintaining the manufacturing environment such as cleaning fluids or oil for lubrication of manufacturing equipment). Indirect materials are usually part of the overhead component of cost. The term material, when used without the direct or indirect qualifier, usually refers to direct materials.
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LINEAR PROGRAMMING (LP), in accounting, is the mathematical approach to optimally allocating limited resources among competing activities. It is a technique used to maximize revenue, contribution margin, and profit function; or, to minimize a cost function, subject to constraints. Linear programming consists of two ingredients: (1) objective function and (2) constraints, both of which are linear. In formulating the LP problem, the first step is to define the decision variables that one is trying to solve. The next step is to formulate the objective function and constraints in terms of these decision variables.
SCA see SUSTAINABLE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE.