ACCOUNTING TERMS - ACCOUNTING DICTIONARY - ACCOUNTING GLOSSARY
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NET LEASES Definition
NET LEASES, typically, there are three net leases: net lease, double-net lease, and triple-net lease. A net lease is a base rent plus an additional charge for taxes. A double-net lease is a base rent plus an additional charge for taxes and insurance. A triple-net lease is base rent plus an additional charge for taxes, insurance, and common area expenses.
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GOODWILL is that intangible possession which enables a business to continue to earn a profit that is in excess of the normal or basic rate of profit earned by other businesses of similar type. The goodwill of a business may be due to a particularly favorable location, its reputation in the community, or the quality of its employer and employees. The evidence that goodwill exists is the proven ability to earn excess profits. Goodwill is created on the books of a newly purchased company to the extent that the purchase price of the company is greater than the value of its net tangible assets. There are a number of methods for valuing goodwill: a. Simple Capitalization - The net profit of the business is capitalized to determine the total value of the business. The value of all the tangible assets is subtracted from the total value to establish the value of the intangible assets, or goodwill. b. Excess Earnings - the amount of earnings that are in excess of those normally earned by a similar business are capitalized to determine the value of goodwill. c. Income Tax Method - The past five years net income is averaged and a reasonable expected rate of return for tangible assets and salary requirements are subtracted. The resulting value is then capitalized to arrive at the goodwill value. d. Market Value - The price a willing seller would accept and a willing buyer would pay for goodwill. e. Buy /Sell Agreement - The value of goodwill is established by a formula in the buy/ sell agreement. f. Rule of Thumb - Goodwill is worth one years gross income.
A firm that shows increasing goodwill over a multi-year period likely has a sustainable competitive advantage.
LEDGER is a book of accounts in which data from transactions recorded in journals are posted and thereby classified and summarized. The ledger is typically divided up into (traditionally physical separate books): a. Purchases/Creditors Ledger is the subsidiary ledger in which creditors accounts are recorded; also known as the bought ledger. Each creditors account is credited with purchases and debited with cash paid, discounts received and returns outward. The detail in the creditors ledger is summarized in the creditors ledger control account kept in the general ledger; b. Sales/Debtors Ledger is the subsidiary ledger in which debtors accounts are recorded; also known as the sold ledger. Each debtors account is debited with sales and credited with cash received, discounts allowed and returns inward. The detail in the debtors ledger is summarized in the debtors ledger control account kept in the general ledger; c. General/Impersonal Ledger is a book of final entry summarizing all of a companys financial transactions, through offsetting debit and credit accounts, e.g. liability, reserve, capital, income and expense accounts; and d. Private Ledger is confidential and records items such as capital, loans, mortgages, directors salaries and awards, etc.