ACCOUNTING TERMS - ACCOUNTING DICTIONARY - ACCOUNTING GLOSSARY
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NORMATIVE ACCOUNTING THEORY Definition
NORMATIVE ACCOUNTING THEORY is where theorists tend to advocate their opinions on accounting based upon subjective opinion, deductive logic, and inductive methods. In the final analysis, nearly all standards are based upon normative theory. Generally conclude that some accounting rule is better or worse than its alternatives. Normative theorists tend to rely heavily upon anecdotal evidence (e.g., examples of fraud) that generally fails to meet tests of academic rigor. For example, the Wizard reported that Montgomery Ward would fail. However, the Wizard always reports that every company will fail or lose its self identity in a pattern of acquisitions and mergers. Eventually, he will always be correct.
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FLOAT MANAGEMENT is to manage depository or checking accounts that do not have any returns associated with them, i.e. it is poor stewardship to leave too much money in checking accounts or other locations that do not maximize returns on that cash, i.e. do not or minimally earn interest income.
STEPPED COSTS is a cost that increases by a reasonably constant sum each time volume or activity increases by a predictable, constant, multiple. The smallest step costs are variable costs, which increase by a discrete amount each time output or activity increases by one unit. Larger steps will consist of what are, effectively, fixed costs over a particular range of output. Some costs increase, or decrease, in significant steps when output or activity passes certain limits. For instance, if a bus company regularly has more passengers on a route than can be carried by a single vehicle it may be necessary to use an additional bus. Running an additional bus will double the cost of operating on that route. Similarly, a manufacturing firm may have a policy of employing one supervisor for every ten production workers. In which case the firm will need one supervisor for 1-10 employees, two supervisors for 11-20 employees, and so on. So, if demand rises to the point where 21 production employees are required an extra supervisor must be employed. Costs that behave in this way are called stepped costs.