ABA (Accredited Business Accountant or Accredited Business Advisor), in the US, is a national credential conferred by Accreditation Council for Accountancy and Taxation to professionals who specialize in supporting the financial needs of individuals and small to medium sized businesses. ABA is the only nationally recognized alternative to the CPA. Most accredited individuals do not perform audits. Generally, they are small business owners themselves. In addition to general accounting work, CPAs are also heavily schooled in performing audits; however, only a small fraction of Americas businesses require an audit. In general, a CPA has majored in accounting, passed the CPA examination and is licensed to perform audits. An ABA has majored in accounting, passed the ABA comprehensive examination and in most states is not licensed to perform audits.
PRICE EARNING RATIO see PRICE EARNINGS MULTIPLE.
PISCAN DOCUMENT, a precursor of double entry bookkeeping, dates from the early 12th century. Records indicate that primitive bookkeeping with sequential transactions using Roman numerals was presented in paragraph form. Some of the record fragments are from an unknown Florentine banking firm dated from 1211. It was not yet double entry bookkeeping, but advancing in that direction. Other fragments include the Castra Gualfred and the Borghesia Company from 1259-67; Gentile de Sassetti and Sons, 1274-1310; and Bene Bencivenni, 1277-96. The most complete records are from Rinieri Fini & Brothers, 1296-1305, and Giovanni Farolfi & Co., 1299-1300.
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