ABNORMAL SPOILAGE is spoilage that is not part of everyday operations. It occurs for reasons such as the following: out-of-control manufacturing processes, unusual machine breakdowns, and unexpected electrical outages that result in a number of spoiled units. Some abnormal spoilage is considered avoidable; that is, if managers monitor processes and maintain machinery appropriately, little spoilage will occur. To highlight these types of problems so that they can be monitored, abnormal spoilage is recorded in a Loss from Abnormal Spoilage Account in the general ledger and is not included in the job costing inventory accounts (work in process, finished goods, and cost of goods sold).
ADVERSE OPINION is expressed if the basis of accounting is unacceptable and distorts the financial reporting of the corporation. If auditors discover circumstances during the course of the audit that make them question whether they can issue an unqualified opinion, they should always discuss those circumstances with the client before issuing the opinion, in order to determine whether it is possible to rectify the problem.
STATUTORY LIQUIDITY RATIO (SLR) is a ratio which every banking company shall maintain in the form of cash, gold or unencumbered approved securities, an amount which shall not, at the close of business on any day be less than such percentage of the total of its demand and time liabilities as the Reserve Bank may specify from time to time.
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