ACCOUNTING CYCLE is the sequence of steps in preparing the financial statements for a given period. It refers to the fact that because financial reports are given each period (usually a year) there are a set of steps (cycle) taken each period that result in the reports and preparation for the next period or cycle. The term cycle is used because every period there is a start and an end. The cycle usually starts with the budget, goes through the journal entries, adjusting entries, posting to the accounts, financial reports, and closings.
CIRCA means about or approximately. It is used before a year, e.g. circa 2008.
LITIGATION RISK is an assessment of the likelihood or probability that legal action may be taken, e.g. auditors may encounter an unacceptable level of litigation risk on an assignment where the client has possibly been involved with fraudulent financial reporting.
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