ACCOUNTING CYCLE is the sequence of steps in preparing the financial statements for a given period. It refers to the fact that because financial reports are given each period (usually a year) there are a set of steps (cycle) taken each period that result in the reports and preparation for the next period or cycle. The term cycle is used because every period there is a start and an end. The cycle usually starts with the budget, goes through the journal entries, adjusting entries, posting to the accounts, financial reports, and closings.
IVA TAX see IMPOSTA VALORE AGGIUNTO TAX.
CAPITALIZATION OF MAINTAINABLE EARNINGS is a valuation method; perhaps the most generally accepted method that involves capitalizing the future maintainable earnings by the application of a suitably chosen capitalization rate or multiple. The definition of earnings may be profit after tax ("PAT") or earnings before interest and tax ("EBIT"). This methodology, which in reality is a surrogate for the discounted cash flow method, requires consideration of several factors, including: a. an estimate of future maintainable earnings having regard to historical operating results and forecasts of future earnings; b. determination of an appropriate capitalization rate which will reflect the risks inherent in the business including sensitivity to industry risk factors, growth prospects, the general economic outlook and alternative investment opportunities; and c. a separate assessment of any surplus or unrelated assets and liabilities which are not essential to the continuing earning capacity of the business operations.
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