ACTUAL COST is the amount paid for an asset; not its retail value, market value or insurance value.
FACTORING is the practice of buying debt at a discount, e.g., if somebody owes you $10,000 payable within a year, a factoring lender may pay you $9,000 for the debt. You receive $9,000 cash quickly, but at the cost of the $1,000 discount.
CONSERVATISM PRINCIPLE provides that accounting for a business should be fair and reasonable. Accountants are required in their work to make evaluations and estimates, to deliver opinions, and to select procedures. They should do so in a way that neither overstates nor understates the affairs of the business or the results of operation.
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