ACTUALS is jargon used when speaking of an actual number experienced through some point in time as opposed to a number that is budgeted or projected into the future, e.g., year-to-date sales, expenses, product produced, etc.
COVENANT is a clause in a contract that requires one party to do, or refrain from doing, certain things. It is usually a restriction on a borrower imposed by a lender.
CUSTOMER ACQUISITION COST is calculated by dividing total acquisition expenses by total new customers. However, there are different opinions on what constitutes an acquisition expense, e.g. rebates and special discounts do not represent an actual cash outlay, yet they have an impact on cash (and, presumably, on the customer). There is no set standard, i.e. acquisition costs vary across industries. When acquisition data is available, it is best to try to determine if you are comparing apples to apples. This is not easy, as customer acquisition data is usually scarce and the methodology is often questionable.
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