AD HOC is being concerned with a particular end or purpose, e.g., a ad hoc committee established to handle a specific subject.

CERTIFICATE OF OBLIGATION is a bond issued by a city, without voter approval.

LEAST-SQUARED METHOD of approximating cost is a statistical approach that is both objective and considers all the data points. By using mathematical formulas to arrive at the best possible cost line (i.e., the regression line), it is more accurate than the methods mentioned previously. The regression line is in the form Y=a + bX, where X is the independent variable and Y is the dependent variable. The coefficient of determination (R2) can be used to judge the line's goodness of fit.

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