ADJUSTMENT Definition

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ADJUSTMENT can be either: 1. an increase or decrease to an account resulting from ADJUSTING ENTRIES; or, 2. changing an account balance due to some event, e.g., adjustment of an account due to the return of merchandise for credit.

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DIVIDEND CAPITALIZATION: Since most closely held companies do not pay dividends, when using dividend capitalization valuators must first determine dividend paying capacity of a business. Dividend paying capacity based on average net income and on average cash flow are used. To determine dividend paying capacity, near term capital needs, expansion plans, debt repayment, operation cushion, contractual requirements, past dividend paying history of a business and dividends of a comparable company should be investigated. After analyzing these factors, percent of average net income and of average cash flow that can be used for the payment of dividends can be estimated. What also must be determined is the dividend yield, which can best be determined by analyzing comparable companies. As with the price earnings ratio method, this usually produces a subjective result.

CAPITAL RECEIPTS is proceeds from the sale of capital assets. They may be used to finance new capital expenditure or repay existing loan debt. Receipts available to finance capital expenditure in future years are normally held in the usable capital receipts reserve.

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