ADVANCE is an amount paid before it is earned, e.g. payment ahead of actual expenditures or phase completion of a construction project.
LETTER OF CREDIT (LOC) is a legal document issued by a buyer's bank that upon presentation of required documents payment would be made. Usually confirmed by the sellers bank, protection is given to the seller that payment will be made if the goods are shipped correctly, and protection is given to the buyer that the goods will be shipped before payment is made.
ACCRUED LIABILITY are liabilities which are incurred, but for which payment is not yet made, during a given accounting period. Some examples in a manufacturing environment would be: wages, taxes, suppliers/vendors, etc.
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