ALLOWANCE METHOD is the accepted way to account for bad debt. Bad debt expense may be based on the percent of credit sales for the period, an aging of the accounts receivable balance at the end of the period, or some other method, e.g., percent of accounts receivable.
PERTURBATION CONTROL is a restriction control to limit the access a particular user has to details in a database. It introduces noise into the output (perturbs, or changes it) to shield the specifics of one record from the person who has only access to summary information.
SHAREHOLDER LOANS include any loans between a corporation and any of its shareholders. Loans from shareholders are normally carried as long-term debt, but the reality is such loans should be counted as equity (they are not) because they rarely are paid back to the shareholder.
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