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ALLOWANCE METHOD is the accepted way to account for bad debt. Bad debt expense may be based on the percent of credit sales for the period, an aging of the accounts receivable balance at the end of the period, or some other method, e.g., percent of accounts receivable.

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DERIVATIVE is a transaction or contract whose value depends on or, as the name implies, derives from the value of underlying assets such as stock, bonds, mortgages, market indices, or foreign currencies. One party with exposure to unwanted risk can pass some or all of the risk to a second party. The first party can assume a different risk from a second party, pay the second party to assume the risk, or, as is often the case, create a combination. Derivatives are normally used to control exposure or risk. See DERIVATIVE CONTRACT.

UNIT-LEVEL ACTIVITY, in Activity Based Costing, is an activity that must be done for each unit of production.

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