AMERICAN DEPOSITORY RECEIPTS Definition

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AMERICAN DEPOSITORY RECEIPTS (ADR) is ownership in the shares of a non-U.S. company that trades in U.S. financial markets. The stock of many non-US companies trade on US stock exchanges through the use of ADRs. ADRs enable U.S. investors to buy shares in foreign companies without the hazards or inconveniences of cross-border & cross-currency transactions. ADRs carry prices in US dollars, pay dividends in US dollars, and can be traded like the shares of US-based companies.

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REFERENDUM is when a legislative act is referred for final approval to a popular vote by the electorate, e.g., a bond referendum.

MONETARY UNIT ASSUMPTION assumes that values can be relevantly measured in current monetary units. It is not necessary that the currency be stable or that inflation effects be negligible. The discount rate (cost of capital) automatically takes into account expected inflationary effect on dollar or inventory values for the specific entity. This supports economic valuation and enhances comparability.

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