AMERICAN DEPOSITORY RECEIPTS (ADR) is ownership in the shares of a non-U.S. company that trades in U.S. financial markets. The stock of many non-US companies trade on US stock exchanges through the use of ADRs. ADRs enable U.S. investors to buy shares in foreign companies without the hazards or inconveniences of cross-border & cross-currency transactions. ADRs carry prices in US dollars, pay dividends in US dollars, and can be traded like the shares of US-based companies.
BEAR MARKET is a period of falling share prices; a pessimistic state of affairs.
INCOME THEORIES try to identify the real profit of an organization. The difficulty here is that you need to define whose income you are measuring, and that limiting income measurements to things that can be given a price devalues goods and services that are difficult or impossible to price.
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