AMERICAN DEPOSITORY RECEIPTS (ADR) is ownership in the shares of a non-U.S. company that trades in U.S. financial markets. The stock of many non-US companies trade on US stock exchanges through the use of ADRs. ADRs enable U.S. investors to buy shares in foreign companies without the hazards or inconveniences of cross-border & cross-currency transactions. ADRs carry prices in US dollars, pay dividends in US dollars, and can be traded like the shares of US-based companies.
NEAR-CASH ASSETS are non-cash assets that can be readily exchanged for cash within a relatively short period (e.g., short-term CDs and money market funds).
MARKETING LEVER is anything that provides positional advantage or power to act effectively: Potential levers may be price, brand name, corporate image, broad distribution, effective advertising, etc.
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