ANGEL INVESTOR is a private wealthy individual that has no association with a venture capital firm, investment fund, etc. The "angel" invests his/her private money into what he/she believes to be promising opportunities, i.e., normally startup companies. Sometimes two or more "angels" will jointly invest into opportunities to spread the risk.
NET PROFIT MARGIN (NPM Pre-Tax) incorporates all of the expenses associated with ordinary business (excluding taxes) thus is a measure of the overall operating efficiency of the firm prior to any tax considerations which may mask performance. For a business to be viable in the long term profits must be generated; making the net profit margin ratio one of the key performance indicators for any business. It is important to analyze the ratio over time. A variation in the ratio from year-to-year may be due to abnormal conditions or expenses which need to be addressed. A decline in the ratio over time may indicate a margin squeeze suggesting that productivity improvements may need to be initiated. In some cases, the costs of such improvements may lead to a further drop in the ratio or even losses before increased profitability is achieved. Formula: Net Earnings / Net Revenue
IRRELEVANT COST, in managerial accounting decision-making situations, is any positive or negative implications phenomenon which is not consequent upon the production process, whether it is denominated in money terms or not.
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