ANOMALY, generally, is a deviation from the common rule. It is an irregularity that is difficult to explain using existing rules or theory. In securities, it is an unexplained or unexpected price or rate relationship that seems to offer an opportunity for an arbitrage-type profit, although not typically without risk. Examples include the tendency of small stocks to outperform large stocks, of stocks with low price-to-book value ratios to outperform stocks with high price-to-book value ratios, and of discount currency forward contracts to outperform premium currency forward contracts.
TURNAROUND is the reversal of unfavorable circumstances of a business where an investment opportunity may exist. A firm may work with such a business to restructure the management and finances in order to take the greatest advantage of more favorable circumstances. There are organizations like the Turnaround Management Association that specialize in turning around failing companies.
INHERENT RISK, generally, it is the risk found in the environment and in human activities that is part of existence. In accounting, it is the susceptibility of an audit area to error which could be material, individually or in combination with other errors, assuming that there are no related internal controls.
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