APB 29 (Accounting Principles Board Opinion No. 29) Accounting for Non-monetary Transactions states that an exchange of non-monetary assets should be recorded at fair value. Certain modifications to that basic principle are contained in paragraphs 20-23 of APB No. 29. Paragraph 21(b) provides that accounting for an exchange of productive assets for similar productive assets should be based on the recorded amount of the non-monetary assets relinquished. However, Paragraph 4 of APB No. 29 states that Opinion is not applicable to business combinations.
STEPPED COSTS is a cost that increases by a reasonably constant sum each time volume or activity increases by a predictable, constant, multiple. The smallest step costs are variable costs, which increase by a discrete amount each time output or activity increases by one unit. Larger steps will consist of what are, effectively, fixed costs over a particular range of output. Some costs increase, or decrease, in significant steps when output or activity passes certain limits. For instance, if a bus company regularly has more passengers on a route than can be carried by a single vehicle it may be necessary to use an additional bus. Running an additional bus will double the cost of operating on that route. Similarly, a manufacturing firm may have a policy of employing one supervisor for every ten production workers. In which case the firm will need one supervisor for 1-10 employees, two supervisors for 11-20 employees, and so on. So, if demand rises to the point where 21 production employees are required an extra supervisor must be employed. Costs that behave in this way are called stepped costs.
LEMON is a. an investment with a poor or negative rate of return or a purchase made where the product has continuing problems, e.g. a lemon of an automobile; or, b. an asset that is in continual need of repair, e.g. an automobile can be referred to as a lemon.
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