APPLICATION RATE, OVERHEAD is a rate used to apply manufacturing overhead to output; estimated factory overhead for a period divided by the estimated application base.
PREMIUM ON CAPITAL STOCK is excess received over the par value of stock issued. The premium account is shown under the paid-in capital section of stockholders equity because it resulted from the issuance of stock. It is not an income statement account since the company earns profit by selling goods and services to outsiders, not by issuing shares of stock to owners.
VISUAL-FIT METHOD is a cost estimation method where an analyst examines a cost by plotting points on a graph (called a scatter diagram) and places a line through the points to yield a cost function. This method is more objective than the account-classification method, but it is still lacking because two cost analysts could (and likely would) visually fit different lines. Such an approach is useful, though, because it helps spot non-representative data points, or outliers.
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