ARREAGE Definition

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ARREAGE is unpaid dividends on cumulative preferred stock.

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CONVEXITY is the price change that occurs for a bond not accounted for or predicted by modified dU1"ation. Convexity explains why price change estimates using modified duration increase in error as the yield changes, generally by more than 100 basis points. Bonds with positive (negative) convexity have increased (decreased) duration as interest rates fall (rise). Bonds with positive convexity, such as those with put options, have returns higher than those predicted by duration alone. Mortgage-backed securities and callable bonds gener­ally have negative convexity, which means that the price increase predicted by duration for a steep rate decline is too high.

80 - 20 RULE (Pareto Principle/Law) is a general rule of thumb in business that says that 20% of the items produce 80% of the activity, while 20% of the product line produces 80% of the sales, 20 % of the customers generate 80% of the complaints, and so on. In evaluating any business situation, look for the small group which produces the major portion of the transactions you are concerned with. This rule is not exactly accurate, but it reflects a general truth, nothing is evenly distributed.

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