ASSURANCE has been defined by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) as "Independent Professional Services that improve information quality or its context". Such services are very broad and could include assessments of various industries, e.g., Internet security or quality of health facilities.
CONTRIBUTION see CONTRIBUTION MARGIN.
PRIVATE PLACEMENT (DEBT) is the sale of a bond or other security directly to a limited number of investors; used in the context of general equities. For example, sale of stocks, bonds, or other investments directly to an institutional investor like an insurance company, avoiding the need for the registration with the regulator if the securities are purchased for investment as opposed to resale.
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