ATTEST is to authenticate, affirm to be true, genuine, or correct, as in an official capacity.
PUTABLE BOND is a bond that contains a provision that allows the holder, or investor, a put option to tender the bond prior to maturity, generally at par. Normally a holding period, often several years, must occur before the put option may be exercised. However, the holder has flexibility, in the event interest rates go up, to tender this bond long before its normal maturity.
DEBT RATIO measures the percent of total funds provided by creditors. Debt includes both current liabilities and long-term debt. Creditors prefer low debt ratios because the lower the ratio, the greater the cushion against creditors losses in liquidation. Owners may seek high debt ratios, either to magnify earnings or because selling new stock would mean giving up control. Owners want control while "using someone elses money." Debt Ratio is best compared to industry data to determine if a company is possibly over or under leveraged. The right level of debt for a business depends on many factors. Some advantages of higher debt levels are:
Some disadvantages can be:
Formula: Total Liabilities / (Total Liabilities + Stockholders Equity)
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