AUDITING STANDARDS provide minimum guidance for the auditor that helps determine the extent of audit steps and procedures that should be applied to fulfill the audit objective. They are the criteria or yardsticks against which the quality of the audit results are evaluated.
COUPON BOND pays the holder of the bond a fixed interest payment (a coupon payment) every year until the bond reaches maturity. It is named a coupon payment, because a bondholder had to obtain their interest payment by clipping a coupon off of a bond and send it to the bond issuer, the bond issuer then sent the bondholder the payment. This process is no longer necessary for most coupon bonds. Examples of coupon bonds: Treasury bonds, Treasury notes and corporate bonds.
CONTRIBUTED SURPLUS is money a company receives by selling shares above par value or their stated value, or from government donation of land to the company, etc. Contributed Surplus is a balance sheet item that is part of the shareholders' equity.
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