AUTHORIZED STOCK Definition

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AUTHORIZED STOCK see AUTHORIZED CAPITAL STOCK.

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GEARING RATIO measures the percentage of capital employed that is financed by debt and long term financing. The higher the gearing, the higher the dependence on borrowing and long term financing. Whereas, the lower the gearing ratio, the higher the dependence on equity financing. Traditionally, the higher the level of gearing, the higher the level of financial risk due to the increased volatility of profits. Financial manager face a difficult dilemma. Most businesses require long term debt in order to finance growth, as equity financing is rarely sufficient, on the other hand, the introduction of debt and gearing increases financial risk. A high gearing ratio is positive; a large amount of debt will give higher return on capital employed but the company dependent on equity financing alone is unable to sustain growth. Gearing can be quite high for small businesses trying to become established, but in general they should not be higher than 50%. Shareholders benefit from gearing to the extent that return on the borrowed money exceeds the interest cost so that the market values of their shares rise.  Formula: Long Term Debt / Shareholders Equity.

PIGGYBACK, dependent upon usage, can mean: 1. On the back or shoulder or astraddle on the hip; 2. Two lenders participating in the same loan (piggyback loan) 3. Unauthorized access to a data processing system via an authorized users legitimate connection (piggyback entry) 4. Haul by railroad car; 5. SEC registration of existing holdings of shares in a corporation combined with an offering of new public shares (piggyback registration) 6. Rights that entitle an investor to register and sell his or her stock whenever the company conducts a public offering (piggyback rights).

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