AVAL is a term meaning inseparable from the financial instrument. This gives a guarantee and is abstracted from the performance of the underlying trade contract: Article 31 of the 1930 Geneva Convention of the Bills Of Exchange states that the aval can be written on the bill itself or on an allonge. US Banks are prohibited from avalizing drafts.
LEVERAGE RATIOS measures the relative contribution of stockholders and creditors, and of the firms ability to pay financing charges. Value of firms debt to the total value of the firm.
CUSTODIAN BANK is the bank that acts a custodian to a mutual fund. Does not manage anything, just holds the cash and securities and does the clerical.
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