BALANCE FORWARD ACCOUNTING is where you maintain a list of charges and payments for each account. To find out the balance at any point in time, you add the charges, add the payments, and then subtract total payments from total charges. A billing statement is sent out every month with any balance carried forward from the previous statement
SUBSTANCE OVER FORM is an accounting concept where the entity is accounting for items according to their substance and economic reality and not merely their legal form. This concept is one of the key determinants of reliable information. For most transactions there will be no difference, so no issue arises. In some cases however, the two diverge and the choice of how to present the transactions can give very different results. This difference occurs when an asset or liability is not recognized in the accounts even though benefits or obligations may result from the transaction, or oppositely.
BACKDOOR LISTING is a technique used by a company which failed to get listed on an exchange, whereby the company acquires and merges with a company already listed on that exchange.
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