BELOW THE LINE, in accounting, denotes credits or debits affecting balance sheet accounts rather than the income statement. Extraordinary items may also appear below the net profit line in the income statement, but accounting standards-setters have increasingly favored reflecting most such items in periodic net income.
RETAINED EARNINGS STATEMENT see STATEMENT OF RETAINED EARNINGS.
NET PRESENT VALUE (NPV) is a method used in evaluating investments, whereby the net present value of all cash outflows (such as the cost of the investment) and cash inflows (returns) is calculated using a given discount rate, usually REQUIRED RATE OF RETURN. An investment is acceptable if the NPV is positive. In capital budgeting, the discount rate used is called the HURDLE RATE and is usually equal to the INCREMENTAL COST OF CAPITAL.
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