BILL OF LADING is the contract between the owner of the goods and the cargo carrier to move the goods to a specified destination. A clean bill of lading is issued by the carrier verifying receipt of the merchandise in apparent good condition (without visually apparent damage or defect). Bills of lading can sometimes be made to cover the whole trip, or separate bills of lading can be prepared for each carrier. Ocean shipments generally require two, an Inland Bill of Lading covering land transportation to the port and an Ocean Bill of Lading covering the ship portion. Bills of lading are negotiable while cargo is in transit.
SPECIAL-PURPOSE ENTITY (SPE) is a financing vehicle that is not a substantive operating entity, usually one created for a single specified purpose. An SPE may be in the form of a corporation, trust, or partnership. Special-purpose entities have been used for several decades for asset securitization, risk sharing, and to take advantage of tax statutes.
INVOICE is a detailed list of goods shipped or services rendered, with an account of all costs; an itemized bill.
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