BONDING is generally used by service companies as a guarantee to their clients that they have the necessary ability and financial tracking to meet their obligations. Bonds are also used to guarantee payment of duty for U.S. Customs entry.

ASC is Accounting Standards Committee or Australian Securities Commission.

NET PRESENT VALUE (NPV) is a method used in evaluating investments, whereby the net present value of all cash outflows (such as the cost of the investment) and cash inflows (returns) is calculated using a given discount rate, usually REQUIRED RATE OF RETURN. An investment is acceptable if the NPV is positive. In capital budgeting, the discount rate used is called the HURDLE RATE and is usually equal to the INCREMENTAL COST OF CAPITAL.

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