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BROUGHT FORWARD is the recognition of a value that was determined in the past, e.g. an accumulated balance brought forward at the start of a new accounting period.

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REMUNERATION is the act of paying for goods or services or to recompense for losses (Example: Receiving remuneration for work, i.e., a paycheck).

CONVEXITY is the price change that occurs for a bond not accounted for or predicted by modified dU1"ation. Convexity explains why price change estimates using modified duration increase in error as the yield changes, generally by more than 100 basis points. Bonds with positive (negative) convexity have increased (decreased) duration as interest rates fall (rise). Bonds with positive convexity, such as those with put options, have returns higher than those predicted by duration alone. Mortgage-backed securities and callable bonds gener­ally have negative convexity, which means that the price increase predicted by duration for a steep rate decline is too high.

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