BUDGET is an itemized listing of the amount of all estimated revenue which a given business anticipates receiving, along with a listing of the amount of all estimated costs and expenses that will be incurred in obtaining the above mentioned income during a given period of time. A budget is typically for one business cycle, such as a year, or for several cycles (such as a five year capital budget). Of the many kinds of budgets, a CASH BUDGET shows CASH FLOW, an EXPENSE BUDGET lists expected payments of money, and a CAPITAL BUDGET shows the anticipated payments for CAPITAL ASSETS. See FORECAST, PROJECTION.
OPERATING EFFECTIVENESS is how an internal control was applied, the consistency with which it was applied, and by whom.
BOOK ENTRY TRANSACTION, in securities, is a transaction that does not entail physical transfer of paper securities. An entry is made on the books of a safekeeping depository showing the beneficial owner of the securities. This has become a standard transaction method for all U.S. Treasury, many U.S. Government agency securities and many taxable and tax-exempt instruments.
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