BUFFER STOCK see STOCK RESERVE.
DIRECT ATTRIBUTION is the most precise method of costing an output. It seeks to capture accurately the volume and cost of resources used by particular activities. This can be expensive unless the information is already available because it requires detailed measurement of actual costs. Such direct measurement is seldom justifiable solely to improve the accuracy of a cost system, but many institutions use this method to obtain efficiency gains and cost savings.
JUNK BOND is a bond with a speculative credit rating of BB or lower. Such bonds offer investors higher yields than bonds of financially sound companies. Two agencies, Standard & Poors and Moodys Investor Services, provide the rating systems for companies credit. See HIGH YIELD JUNK.
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