BUSINESS ENTITY PRINCIPLE is where the business is seen as an entity separate from its owner(s) that keeps and presents financial records and prepares the final accounts and financial statements. The accounting is kept for each entity as a whole (groups of companies must present consolidated accounts and consolidated financial statements).
AMERICAN DEPOSITORY RECEIPTS (ADR) is ownership in the shares of a non-U.S. company that trades in U.S. financial markets. The stock of many non-US companies trade on US stock exchanges through the use of ADRs. ADRs enable U.S. investors to buy shares in foreign companies without the hazards or inconveniences of cross-border & cross-currency transactions. ADRs carry prices in US dollars, pay dividends in US dollars, and can be traded like the shares of US-based companies.
FRIENDLY TAKEOVER consists of a straight buyout of a company, and happens all the time. The shareholders receive cash or (more commonly) an agreed-upon number of shares of the acquiring companys stock.
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