BUSINESS PUBLICATIONS AUDIT (BPA) is similar to the Audit Bureau of Circulation; the BPA is a third-party organization that verifies the circulation of print media through periodic audits.
YELLOW SHEETS is a daily publication of the National Quotation Bureau that details the bid and asked prices and firms that make a market in corporate bonds traded in the over-the-counter market. Yellow Sheets are to bonds what pink sheets are to unlisted stocks.
MARGIN is a. in accounting see GROSS MARGIN; or, b. in securities, it is the process whereby investors are allowed to buy securities on credit. By buying on margin, the investor significantly increases the leverage, or risk/return potential, of the investment. For example, a purchase of $100 worth of stock with cash of $50 means a four to one increase in value if the stock doubles (versus a two to one increase if the purchase is all cash). On the other hand, if the stock declines, the investor would be forced either to put up more cash or sell the stock at a loss to meet margin requirements established by the Federal Reserve Bank. The margin rules currently stipulate that an investor must maintain 50% of the total market value of the securities in the account in cash.
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