CAPITAL INFUSION often refers to the cross-subsidization of divisions within a firm. When one division is not doing well, it might benefit from an infusion of new funds from the more successful divisions. In the context of venture capital, it can also refer to funds received from a venture capitalist to either get the firm started or to save it from failing due to lack of cash.
LONG TERM DEBT is all senior debt, including bonds, debentures, bank debt, mortgages, deferred portions of long term debt, and capital lease obligations. If a firm shows little to no long term debt over the years and/or their earning power could allow them to pay off their long term debt within 3-4 years, it is a good indicator of a sustainable competitive advantage.
MARKET MAKERS is one of the major differences between The NASDAQ Stock Market and other major markets in the U.S. is NASDAQ's structure of competing Market Makers. Market Makers are NASDAQ member firms that use their own capital, research, retail and/or systems resources to represent a stock and compete with each other to buy and sell the stocks they represent. Each Market Maker competes for customer order flow by displaying buy and sell quotations for a guaranteed number of shares. Once an order is received, the Market Maker will immediately purchase for or sell from its own inventory, or seek the other side of the trade until it is executed, often in a matter of seconds.
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