CAPITAL MAINTENANCE contains two concepts, a financial concept and a physical concept. Most entities adopt a financial concept of capital maintenance. Under this concept a profit is earned only if the monetary amount of net assets at the end of the period, excluding distributions/contributions to/from owners, exceeds the monetary amount of net assets at the beginning of the period. Financial capital maintenance is usually measured in monetary units; however, the requirement to report the impact of hyperinflation results in the measurement of assets and liabilities in monetary units of constant purchasing power.
FRA is Forward Rate Agreement, Financial Responsibility Act, Full Retirement Age (SSA), Fiscal Responsibility Act, Federal Reimbursement Allowance, or Federal Register Act.
TOPSIDE ACCOUNTING ADJUSTMENTS/DEVICES is an illegal practice to where accountants manipulate its accounting practices to close gaps between actual operating results and results reported to the investing public. Accountants then falsely represent to the public that their audits were conducted in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards (GAAS) and that an entitys financial reports fairly represent the entitys financial condition and were prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).
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