CAPITAL MAINTENANCE contains two concepts, a financial concept and a physical concept. Most entities adopt a financial concept of capital maintenance. Under this concept a profit is earned only if the monetary amount of net assets at the end of the period, excluding distributions/contributions to/from owners, exceeds the monetary amount of net assets at the beginning of the period. Financial capital maintenance is usually measured in monetary units; however, the requirement to report the impact of hyperinflation results in the measurement of assets and liabilities in monetary units of constant purchasing power.
ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE is the set of beliefs, values, and norms, together with symbols like dramatized events and personalities that represents the unique character of an organization, and provides the context for action in it and by it.
DEBENTURE is a corporate IOU that is not backed by the companys assets (unsecured) and is therefore somewhat riskier than a bond.
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