CAPITAL STRUCTURE refers to the permanent long-term financing of a company. Capital structure normally includes common and preferred stock, long-term debt and retained earnings. It does not include accounts payable or short-term debt.
ROACE stands for Return on Average Capital Employed.
BIG 4 usually refers to the largest accounting firms: Deloitte & Touche, Ernst and Young, KPMG, and PricewaterhouseCoopers.
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