CAPITAL STRUCTURE refers to the permanent long-term financing of a company. Capital structure normally includes common and preferred stock, long-term debt and retained earnings. It does not include accounts payable or short-term debt.
IMPOSTA VALORE AGGIUNTO TAX (IVA TAX), in Italy, like most other European countries, Italy imposes a value added tax (VAT) on most goods and services purchased in the country. In Italy, the value added tax is known as the Imposta sul Valore Aggiunto or IVA. This tax is normally included or built into the price of most goods and services. The general rate of tax is 19% of the sale price.
ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED (EVA) measures the difference between the return on a company's capital and the cost of that capital. A positive EVA indicates that value has been created for shareholders; a negative EVA signifies value destruction.
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