CAPITALIZATION OF MAINTAINABLE EARNINGS is a valuation method; perhaps the most generally accepted method that involves capitalizing the future maintainable earnings by the application of a suitably chosen capitalization rate or multiple. The definition of earnings may be profit after tax ("PAT") or earnings before interest and tax ("EBIT"). This methodology, which in reality is a surrogate for the discounted cash flow method, requires consideration of several factors, including: a. an estimate of future maintainable earnings having regard to historical operating results and forecasts of future earnings; b. determination of an appropriate capitalization rate which will reflect the risks inherent in the business including sensitivity to industry risk factors, growth prospects, the general economic outlook and alternative investment opportunities; and c. a separate assessment of any surplus or unrelated assets and liabilities which are not essential to the continuing earning capacity of the business operations.
TRUE AND FAIR VIEW is one of the most prominent principles of accounting. It suggests that an enterprise should provide a true and fair view about its financial conditions and operating results. The concept of true and fair view does not mean absolute truth about enterprises. Financial statements are a product of managements judgments and estimates. The principle of true and fair view requires comparative truth about the enterprises picture. True and fair view is rather defined operationally; it is thought to be accomplished by complying with all other lower accounting principles.
TONE AT THE TOP refers to how an organization's leadership creates the tone at the top - an ethical (or unethical) atmosphere in the workplace. Management's tone has a trickle-down effect on employees. If top managers uphold ethics and integrity so will employees. But if upper management appears unconcerned with ethics and focuses solely on the bottom line, employees will be more prone to commit fraud and feel that ethical conduct isn't a priority. In short, employees will follow the examples of their bosses
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