CASH FLOW is earnings before depreciation and amortization. Cash flow is calculated as the difference between cash inflows and outflows. Cash flow can be derived from Operating Profit by adjusting for items which do not affect payments (e.g. depreciation) and items (e.g. changes in working capital) which affect payments but are not recorded in Operating Profit.
IRREVOCABLE LETTER OF CREDIT is a letter of credit in which the specified payment is guaranteed by the issuing bank if all terms and conditions are met by the drawee. It is as good as the issuing bank.
ACTUARIAL SCIENCE applies mathematical and statistical methods to finance and insurance, particularly to the assessment of risk. Actuaries are professionals who are qualified in this field.
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