CASH-ON-CASH RETURN is the ratio of annual before-tax cash flow to the total amount of cash invested, expressed as a percentage. It is often used to evaluate the cash flow from income-producing assets. It is generally considered a quick napkin test to determine if the property qualifies for further review and analysis. Cash on Cash analyses are generally used by investors looking for properties where cash flow is king, however, some use it to determine if a property is under priced, indicating instant equity in a property. It is calculated: Annual Before-tax Cash Flow divided by the Total Cash Invested.

MARGINAL COST is a calculation showing the change in total cost as a result of a change in volume, e.g. if one more item of output increases the total cost by $25, the marginal cost is $25. It is usually useful to determine marginal cost because it can aid in determining if the rate of production should be altered.

LIEN is the right to take anothers property if an obligation is not discharged.

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