CERTIFIED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS are financial statements that have undergone a formal audit by a certified public accountant and usually contain statements of certification by the CPA.
COST IN EXCESS OF BILLINGS, in percentage of completion method, is when the billings on uncompleted contracts are less than the income earned to date. These under-billings result in increased assets. Conversely, where billings are greater than the income earned on uncompleted contracts, a liability, billings in excess of costs, results.
ENCUMBRANCE is a) a right or interest in land owned by someone other than the owner of the land itself; examples include easements, leases, mortgages, and restrictive covenants; or, b) in accounting, an encumbrance is an anticipated expenditure, or funds restricted for anticipated expenditures, such as for outstanding purchase orders.
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