CHAPTER S or SUBCHAPTER S Definition

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CHAPTER S or SUBCHAPTER S is a legal corporate entity organized under the United States Federal Tax Code that allows Subchapter S Corporations to distribute all income / loss proportionately to its shareholders, who then claim that income / loss on their personal income taxes; thereby avoiding the payment of corporate taxes.

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SCIENTER THEORY is based on the word scienter, which is Latin for "having knowledge." In criminal law, the theory refers to knowledge by a defendant that his/her acts were illegal or his/her statements were lies and thus fraudulent. In securities, it is to knowingly transact a fraudulent securities deal.

LOAN TO VALUE RATIO, in real estate, is the percentage value for the relationship between the amount of the mortgage loan and the appraised value of the property. Loan-to-value ratio is expressed to a potential purchaser of a property in terms of the percentage a lending institution is willing to finance.

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