CHARTERED ACCOUNTANT (CA) is a British accountant who is a member of the Institute of Chartered Accountants. They work in many areas of business and the public sector, in roles ranging from sole practitioner to chief executive of a multinational company. In public practice firms, they provide professional services to a wide range of fee paying clients from private individuals to large commercial and public sector organizations, including banks. The seservices include audit/assurance, accountancy, tax, business advisory, management consultancy, systems and IT,corporate finance, corporate recovery and forensic accounting. In commerce/industry and the public sector, they work in a variety of roles including fund management, venture capital and equity analysis, as well as financial management and financial reporting roles.
RETROACTIVE is to affect and modify things past, e.g. a retroactive tax increase.
INCOME CAPITALIZATION: First you must determine the capitalization rate - a rate of return required to take on the risk of operating the business (the riskier the business, the higher the required return). Earnings are then divided by that capitalization rate. The earnings figure to be capitalized should be one that reflects the true nature of the business, such as the last three years average, current year or projected year. When determining a capitalization rate you should compare with rates available to similarly risky investments.
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