COGS (COST OF GOODS) RATIO = COGS / Total Sales.
DIRECT EXPENSE is that portion of expense that is directly expended in providing a product or service for sale and is included in the calculation of COST OF GOODS SOLD, e.g. labor and inventory.
INCOME AFTER TAXES is the net profit earned by the company after deducting all expenses like interest, depreciation and tax. PAT can be fully retained by a company to be used in the business. Dividends, if declared, are paid to the share holders from this residue.
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