COGS see COST OF GOODS SOLD
MARGIN is a. in accounting see GROSS MARGIN; or, b. in securities, it is the process whereby investors are allowed to buy securities on credit. By buying on margin, the investor significantly increases the leverage, or risk/return potential, of the investment. For example, a purchase of $100 worth of stock with cash of $50 means a four to one increase in value if the stock doubles (versus a two to one increase if the purchase is all cash). On the other hand, if the stock declines, the investor would be forced either to put up more cash or sell the stock at a loss to meet margin requirements established by the Federal Reserve Bank. The margin rules currently stipulate that an investor must maintain 50% of the total market value of the securities in the account in cash.
IDLE TIME is unproductive time caused by, e.g., machine breakdowns, shortages of material or inefficient scheduling. The cost of idle time is usually classified as an indirect rather than a direct cost.
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