COMMERCIAL INVOICE, generally, is the sellers bill of sale for the goods sold, specifying type of goods, quantity and price of each type and terms of sale. In import/export, it represents a complete record of the transaction between exporter and importer with regard to the goods sold. Also reports the content of the shipment and serves as the basis for all other documents about the shipment.
BILL OF LADING is the contract between the owner of the goods and the cargo carrier to move the goods to a specified destination. A clean bill of lading is issued by the carrier verifying receipt of the merchandise in apparent good condition (without visually apparent damage or defect). Bills of lading can sometimes be made to cover the whole trip, or separate bills of lading can be prepared for each carrier. Ocean shipments generally require two, an Inland Bill of Lading covering land transportation to the port and an Ocean Bill of Lading covering the ship portion. Bills of lading are negotiable while cargo is in transit.
VARIABLE COSTS are those costs associated with production that changes directly with the amount of production, e.g.,the direct material or labor required to complete the build or manufacturing of a product.
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