COMMITTED COSTS are costs, usually fixed costs, which the management of an organization has a long-term responsibility to pay. Examples include rent on a long-term lease and depreciation on an asset with an extended life.
DIVIDEND PAYOUT RATIO is a measure of the percentage of earnings paid out in dividends; computed by dividing cash dividends by the net income available to each class of stock.
ENCUMBERED is when an asset is owned by one party subject to the legal claims of another party. One example is a homeowner that owns a home that is subject to (encumbered by) the claims of the mortgage holder.
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