COMMON SIZE ANALYSIS, as used in vertical analysis of financial statements, an item is used as a base value and all other accounts in the financial statement are compared to this base value. On the balance sheet, total assets equal 100% and each asset is stated as a percentage of total assets. Similarly, total liabilities and stockholders equity are assigned 100%, with a given liability or equity account stated as a percentage of total liabilities and stockholders equity. On the income statement, 100% is assigned to net sales, with all revenue and expense accounts then related to it in percentages. See COMMON SIZED PERCENTAGES.
DEFAULT, in finance, default is what occurs when a party is unwilling or unable to pay their debt obligations. This can occur with all debt obligations including bonds, debentures, mortgages, loans, and notes. Default can also occur with sovereign bonds, that is, governments can default on their payments to creditors. In corporate finance, a default is typically a prelude to bankruptcy. With most mortgages and loans the total amount owing becomes immediately payable on the first instance of a default of payment.
CONSUMPTION SMOOTHING is aimed at protecting consumption patterns from the impact of shocks, and can take effect either before or after their occurrence. Post-shock responses include modifying consumption, raising income by mobilizing labor or selling assets, drawing on informal or formal sources of savings, or activating claims on informal insurance mechanisms.
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