COMMON SIZED PERCENTAGES are financial statements in which each item is expressed as a percentage of a major financial statement component. In the Income Statement, each "Common Size %" is the field amount expressed as a percent of "Net Revenues." In the Balance Sheet, each "Common Size %" is the amount in the category as a percent of Total Assets. Common sized financial statements can be used to: a. identify key structural changes in a company's financial data over a period of time; b. more easily compare the financial data of firms that vary significantly in size; and, c. compare a company's financial data to industry norms.
AVERAGE COST is total cost for all units bought (or produced) divided by the number of units.
SCIENTER THEORY is based on the word scienter, which is Latin for "having knowledge." In criminal law, the theory refers to knowledge by a defendant that his/her acts were illegal or his/her statements were lies and thus fraudulent. In securities, it is to knowingly transact a fraudulent securities deal.
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