COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE exists when the firm is able to deliver the same benefits as competitors but at a lower cost (cost advantage), or deliver benefits that exceed those of competing products (differentiation advantage). Thus, a competitive advantage enables the firm to create superior value for its customers and superior profits for itself. See also SUSTAINABLE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE.
UNIT-OF-WORK-PERFORMED METHOD is where revenue and cost of sales are recorded as units of work are delivered. This is most suitable to production-type contracts where many units of a product are produced in a continuous process, e.g. automobile manufacture.
OPERATING ALLOWANCE is an advance/reimbursement against certain costs/expenses and/or a reduction in amount payable to cover those certain costs/expenses.
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