CONSUMPTION SMOOTHING is aimed at protecting consumption patterns from the impact of shocks, and can take effect either before or after their occurrence. Post-shock responses include modifying consumption, raising income by mobilizing labor or selling assets, drawing on informal or formal sources of savings, or activating claims on informal insurance mechanisms.
TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP (TCO) is a model developed by Gartner Group to analyze the direct and indirect costs of owning and using hardware and software. Managers of enterprise systems use various versions of TCO to lower costs while increasing the benefits of information technology deployments. The TCO includes: original cost of the computer and software, hardware and software upgrades, maintenance, technical support, and training. Most estimates place the TCO at about 3 to 4 times the actual purchase cost of the PC.
INTERNAL AUDIT is an independent appraisal function established within an organization to examine and evaluate its activities as a service to the organization. The objective of internal auditing is to assist members of the organization in the effective discharge of their responsibilities. To this end, internal auditing furnishes them with analyses, appraisals, recommendations, counsel, and information concerning the activities reviewed. The audit objective includes promoting effective control at reasonable cost. Occasionally a corporation may contract an external auditor or firm to conduct its internal audit function.
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