CONTINENTAL MODEL is an accounting model. There are other accounting systems which differ from the U.S. accounting model. U.S. GAAP and FASB standards are not the only accounting principles used internationally; for example, many countries reverse the U.S. debit and credit system. Many countries with high rates of inflation account for inflation in financial reports much more than the U.S. does. Also, for any company operating internationally there is the currency exchange translation problem when consolidating financial statements.
DEBT RATINGS is the creditworthiness of a borrower as measured in the U.S. by debt rating agencies Moody's and Standard and Poor's. A triple A (AAA) rating means that there is almost no likelihood of the borrower failing to pay.
RISK ADJUSTED RETURN is when we subtract from the rate of return on an asset a rate of return from another asset that has similar risk. This gives an abnormal rate of return that shows how the asset performed over and above a benchmark asset with the same risk. We can also use the beta against the benchmark to calculate an alpha which is also risk adjusted performance.
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